....................In your hands is the power of the empire...............

....................In    your    hands    is    the    power    of    the    empire...............

PDC Permaculture Design Course - September - Island of S.Miguel - Azores

PDC Permaculture Design Course - September - Island of S.Miguel - Azores
Join us to know all about Permaculture
Permaculture is to live in harmony with nature providing for human needs and the needs of the ecosystems

Understory


Understory (or understorey) is the term for the area of a forest which grows at the lowest height level below the forest canopy. Plants in the understory consist of a mixture of seedlings and saplings of canopy trees together with understory shrubs and herbs. Young canopy trees often persist as suppressed juveniles for decades while they wait for an opening in the forest overstory which will enable their growth into the canopy. On the other hand, understory shrubs are able to complete their life cycle in the shade of the forest canopy. Also some small trees such asdogwood and holly rarely grow tall and are generally understory trees.
Forest understories have lower light intensities than at the canopy top. The wavelengths of light that are available are only a subset of those that are available in full sunlight. Understory plants must thus often be shade tolerant—they must be able to photosynthesize successfully with the limited amount of light that is available. They are often able to use wavelengths not available to canopy trees. In temperate deciduous forestsunderstory seedlings "leaf out" before the canopy trees do. This is important because it allows the understory plants a window in which to photosynthesize without the canopy present. This brief period (usually 1–2 weeks) is often a crucial period which allows the plant to maintain a net positive carbon balance over the course of the year.
Forest understories also have higher humidity than exposed areas. The forest canopy reduces solar radiation, so the ground does not heat up as rapidly. Consequently, the understory dries out more slowly than the more exposed areas do. The greater humidity allows fungi and other decomposers to flourish. This drives nutrient cycling, and provides favorable microclimates for many animals and plants
Enviar um comentário

Your comments are very apreciated

Your comments are very apreciated
Permaculture is to create paradise on earth starting at the kitchen garden

Etiquetas

Abelhas / Bees (5) activism (11) Activismo (10) Adubos orgânicos / Organic fertilizer (2) Africa (3) agriculture (2) Agroflorestas / Agroforestry (6) Agua / Water (8) Aid work (4) alentejo (1) Algarve (1) Alternative (1) Alternative construction (1) amazon (9) Amazonia (2) america (3) andes (3) animals (3) Ants / Formigas (1) Aquacultura / Aquaculture (3) aquecimento global (3) Art (5) Arvores / Trees (7) Asia (2) association (7) Australia (3) Austria (1) bacteria (1) banana (2) Bases de dados / Data bases (1) Belgium (4) Bill Mollison (21) Bio construction (3) Bioconstrução / Bioconstruction (9) Biodinâmica / Biodynamics (2) Biodiversidade (3) Biodiversity (3) bioma (1) biosfera (1) bolivia (1) Books (2) Brasil (7) Brazil (7) british (6) Buckminster Fullen (1) Burkina Faso (1) California (2) canabis (1) canhamo (1) care (4) casa de banho seca (1) chicken (3) children (8) China (1) Cidades de Transição / Transition Towns (1) Cinema (24) clima (1) climate change (7) Cogumelos / Mushrooms (8) colorado (1) comestiveis (1) comics (1) community (8) como (2) como cultivar (1) Companion planting (1) compost (1) compost toillet (1) composto (1) Composto / Compost (2) Conspi ? (3) convergence (5) cordwood (1) course (21) Courses (1) Courses/Cursos (25) creativity (1) crianças (1) Cuba (3) Culinária / Cooking (10) cultivar (1) curso (3) curso / course (1) Curso Permacultura (4) Cursos / Courses (4) Danmark (1) Daren Doherty (1) David Holmgren (8) death (1) Decrescimento (1) deforestation (1) denver (1) Desenvolvimento sustentável (3) desert (3) Design (22) dicas (1) dinheiro (1) Diploma (14) dog (2) dolphin (1) dome (1) download (3) earthships (1) Ecoaldeias / Ecovillages (5) educação ambiental (1) education (3) Education / Educação (8) Energia alternativa / Alternative energy (6) energy (5) england (8) entrevista (3) Ernst Gotsch (3) erosion (2) esgoto (1) Ética / Etics (1) europe (26) Eventos / Events (24) events (1) fardos de palha (1) Farming (2) Fauna (18) Felicidade / Happiness (2) Fernanda Botelho (1) festival (1) flora (14) Florestas (4) Florestas comestiveis / Food Forest (23) FMI (1) food (12) Forest (7) Forests (3) Formacao (2) France;Natural (1) free (4) Front Line (1) fun (5) fungos (1) funny (3) Galinhas (2) gardening (1) Geoff Lawton (10) giant (1) gigantes (1) global warming (5) Greece (1) green (3) green roof (1) greenhouse (2) greenwashing (1) grow (3) Haiti (3) Hawai (1) Health (4) heavy metals (1) Helder Valente (39) hemp (1) Histórias (1) Horticultura / Horticulture (7) How (2) how to (5) India (3) Insectos / insects (4) Insects (1) institute (1) Internship (4) interview (9) Introduction (3) Introduction / Introdução (2) IPC (4) IPEC (3) ireland (1) jamaica (1) japan (5) Jardins de guerrilha / Guerrilla gardening (2) Jardins Verticais / Vertical gardens (1) joke (1) jordan (2) José Mário Branco (1) Jungle (2) juventude (1) kids (3) kill (1) Lagos (1) lakes (1) Largest Living Organism on earth (1) Life (1) Lisboa (6) Livros (1) madeira (3) magazine (2) Maior flor do mundo / Worlds biggest flower (1) Mapas / Maps (1) mar (1) Masanobu Fukuoka (6) Master (1) masters (1) matar (1) Media (2) mediterraneo (2) metais pesados (2) Mexico (3) micelium (1) microorganismos (1) moçambique (1) Morte / Death (1) mountain (3) music (5) mycelium (2) native plants (2) Natural (3) Natural Farming (3) Nature (6) New (8) new school (28) ninho de melro lisboa (1) Nova (1) O que é (2) ORA (3) Organic fertilizer / Fertilizantes orgãnicos (1) Organic fertilizer/Adubos orgânico (1) Orgonite Cloudbuster (1) osgas (1) overstory (1) Padrões / Patterns (4) palestina (1) pando (1) party (1) PDC (37) pdf (1) peak oil (2) Penny Livingstone (2) people (3) Permacultura (36) Permacultura Brasil (2) Permacultura India / Permaculture (2) Permacultura India / Permaculture India (1) Permacultura Marrocos / Permaculture morocco (1) Permacultura México (1) Permacultura Peru (1) Permacultura Urbana / Urban Permaculture (14) Permacultura urbana lisboa (1) Permacultura urbana lisboa portugal (2) Permaculture (88) permaculture cambodja (1) Permaculture institute portugal (2) Permaculture instituto portugal (1) Permaculture Russia (1) Peru (10) Pessoas / People (2) Plantas / Plants (14) plantas companheiras (1) plastic (1) Poesia (1) politica (1) Politica / Politics (12) poluição (1) polution (6) pomar (1) portugal (56) Portugal interview (1) Pow Wow (2) Principios / Principles (3) Productos de limpeza / Cleaning products (3) pumpkins (1) punks (1) Quechua (1) Raised beds (2) reciclagem (3) recycle (5) recycling (2) religião (1) Religion (2) repteis (1) resistance (1) Revolução (1) Revolução / Revolution (2) rir (3) Rosemary Morrow (3) Rural (1) Russia (1) sabao vitamina d soap vitamin (1) saldanha (1) schools (2) sea (4) sedosas japonesas /Japanene silky bantan (1) selvagens (1) Sementes / Seeds (7) Sepp Holzer (6) sexy (1) Sintra (5) smile (1) social (4) Sociedade / Society (2) Solo / Soil (3) south (2) South africa (1) south america (4) spirituality (1) Sri Lanka (1) Strawbale (2) style (1) Super Adobe (1) survival (1) sustainable development (3) Sustentabilidade (1) Swales / Valas (3) Teacher (4) teacher trainning (1) TED (3) telhado verde (1) temperado (1) The true history (1) tips (1) to (1) Toby Hemenway (1) Toca do rebento (4) tomates (1) tomatoes (1) Trainning (1) Trangénicos / Trangenic (4) Transition Towns / Cidades de Transição (2) Trees (1) tribes (1) tricks (1) tropical (2) truques (1) Turkey (3) TV (4) U.S.A. (2) Uganda (2) uk (18) Urban (3) Urbana (2) USA (12) vananda shiva (1) Vandana Shiva (2) Vermicomposto / Worm compost (2) Vida (1) voluntariado (1) volunteer (1) war (1) What is Permaculture? (1) wild (1) Woman (1) work (1) workshop (2) youth (1) zimbabwe (1) zoning (1)